The Experience Of Russia
Oddly enough, the first attempts to train marine mammals for military actions have been taken in Russia, and the proposal made by Vladimir Durov, however, about the seals. Famous animal trainer suggested using animals as the bomb squad. Unfortunately, they all died in the result of sabotage by enemy of Russia – Germany. Case of poisoning combat seals investigated to the end and was not due to the revolution of 1917. Papers that reflect this learning, were eliminated, so they couldn’t use the enemies.
Then the idea of using marine animals caught the Americans that put together with other mammals and even dolphins. Initially, they served as a patrol, then became engaged in mining, simultaneously neutralizing floating people.
According to some reports, the first experiments with the dolphins of the U.S. armed forces began in the late 1950-ies. Then the military was most interested in locating abilities of marine mammals. In the 1960-ies was published a number of papers devoted to the intellectual abilities of dolphins. In this regard, highlighted the work of neurophysiologist John Lilly, who suggested that the mind of the Dolphin is at least comparable to human intelligence, and perhaps surpasses it. Their first baptism was patrolling the largest naval base of the USA in Vietnam – Cam Ranh. Animals-the military helped to catch more than 50 swimmers, saboteurs, trying to attach to the sides of the American ships magnetic mines. Moreover, there were cases when sea lions were themselves destroyed swimmers using the fixed on the nose of knives or needles with poison.
Around the same time in the Soviet Union also renewed the learning experiences of the inhabitants of the sea. After the 2nd world war in the USSR appeared in Crimea a Dolphinarium, where dolphins were taught to fight. Training has also been and seals. In 1967, in the Cossack Bay of Sevastopol was opened the first Soviet military Oceanarium. Rations were delivered to 50 bottlenose dolphins. In the 1970s, work has connected dozens of scientific institutions of the USSR. Dolphins and seals at that time was preparing on several fronts: protecting and patrolling the area, the destruction of saboteurs, the search and discovery of those or other underwater objects.
The aquarium is in full swing held military exercises. Marine mammals found saboteurs in 80% of cases. Somewhat worse was the case with the night swimmers – 28-60%. However, within riparian enclosure. In the open sea the probability of detection close to 100%. Contrary to popular belief Sevastopol dolphins were trained to kill people, because otherwise they’d just started to attack her, after all, to distinguish our diver from another animal difficult. Therefore, reaching a goal, they only stripped the saboteur fins, mask and pushed it to the surface.
Another reason why the military refused to cook from the Dolphin killers, became their innate disposition towards people. As shown, after the attack fatalities dolphins suffered severe stress and often sabotaged further orders. Nevertheless the combat weapons (knives, needles paralyzing or poisonous substances and even pistols, worn on the nose and trigger upon impact) in the Arsenal of special forces had. Unlike dolphins, sea lions and seals without any remorse poked people with poisoned needles.
But the service of military dolphins not limited to the identification of enemy spies. In February 1977 on the black sea fleet there was one unit of retrieval. It glorified the aquarium and brought huge benefits to the Navy. About the ability of dolphins to successfully find lost objects has been known for a long time. Using sonar animals can not only find even the small fish in the water, but also to look under the ground to half a meter in depth. And while they can accurately determine what they are made of sunken object made of wood, concrete or metal. They can find even the bolts and nuts, seen them once shown and then scattered on the waters of the Bay. These outstanding talents and become successfully applied in practice in Sebastopol.
Help of bottlenose dolphins was invaluable when searching for sunken during the school firing torpedoes to detect because of their divers was almost impossible. To search for training dolphins torpedoes on the muzzle wear special backpacks with audiomachine and buoys with anchors. Finding the lost torpedo, they swam to her, poked her nose into the ground and flicked audiomax together with the displacer. And then was invoked divers.
In their specialty search dolphins reached incredible skill. They even mastered underwater photography. Specifically for the special forces developed a camera that can withstand depths of over 100 meters. Animals taught properly direct the lens at the target, freeze, and only in this moment to release the shutter. And that the flash had not blinded them, the dolphins were trained to close their eyes during filming. Then the photos can be easily determined that the finding rests on the bottom and is it worth wasting time on her recovery.
Sometimes for help addressed to military and civilian agencies. For example, at the request of archaeologists combat dolphins searched and found the remains of ancient ships. With their help from the bottom rose the ancient Greek amphorae and other antiquities.
American combat dolphins
Dolphins and other animals to this day are used to search for sunken objects, they do an excellent job. There were cases where the animals were kept long lost objects – in particular, subs.
Today, combat dolphins are primarily used in Iran and in the United States. In America they even assign the title. Last American “combat dolphins” remembered during the Iraq campaign, when in the Persian Gulf were sent to nine of the dolphins and sea lions team. Off the coast of Kuwait marine animals are first smoothed out the territory from the frogmen of the enemy, and then set about discovering Just minutes with their help it was discovered more than 100 min.
During the second Iraq war in 2-3 year dolphins also actively apply for clearance of the Iraqi port of Umm Qasr. Two dolphins by nicknames, Tacoma and Makai were delivered to Umm-Qasr helicopter in special pools. Makai serves in the U.S. Navy for 20 years, but the Tacoma military say that this is a very talkative creature.
According to media reports only “service” in the U.S. fleet consists of about 40 animals, and other sources in various military programmes in the United States involves about 250 marine mammals. They can search for mines, to detect objects by the sound and look of divers trying to get to the ports and military courts. A joint service of man and Dolphin, especially in combat, makes them. People tend to render honors to their comrades. For outstanding service one of the dolphins named taffy recently was officially promoted to Sergeant of the U.S. Navy.
Now interest in martial dolphins show, India, Iran, Israel and several other States. Meanwhile, in the unanimous opinion of the staff of the Institute of ecology and evolution, far more productive use of dolphins not in the military, and for peaceful purposes. For example, they can be very effective in the inspection of underwater structures, in particular of pipelines. Dolphin is able to detect any mechanical damage or trickle of gas coming out of the pipe, to photograph them, fix the ropes, which can be lowered into the water the necessary equipment.
The Institute’s specialists are ready to offer their services in preparing the world’s first civil division of the dolphins, whose tasks will include maintenance and monitoring of the European gas pipeline under the Baltic sea. I want to believe that the use of dolphins for peaceful purposes will be of great benefit to science and will open the two most intelligent species on Earth new ways to cooperate fully. And it will agree, are much more productive than military action.